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Table 3 Cytokine concentrations in culture media of PBMCs isolated before and after a milk meal in healthy adultsa

From: MicroRNAs in bovine milk exosomes are bioavailable in humans but do not elicit a robust pro-inflammatory cytokine response

CytokineHoursPre-milk meal (pg/mL)Post-milk meal (pg/mL)
IL-2242 ± 0.63 ± 1.6
484 ± 1.45 ± 1.9
721 ± 0.31 ± 0.15
IL-4245 ± 1.16 ± 1.1
485 ± 1.36 ± 1.4
723 ± 0.73 ± 0.6
IL-5244 ± 0.94 ± 1.8
484 ± 1.04 ± 1.1
721 ± 0.21 ± 0.1
IL-17A243 ± 0.75 ± 2.1
4813 ± 0.913 ± 8.8
721 ± 0.14 ± 3.1
IFN-γ243 ± 0.84 ± 1.2
483 ± 0.74 ± 1.3
721 ± 0.21 ± 0.4
  1. aValues are means ± SEM, n = 12 p > 0.05 for PBMCs collected before vs. after milk consumption and treated with ConA for 24, 48 and 72 h. ConA Concanavalin A, IFN-γ Interferon-gamma, IL interleukin