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  1. The kidney requires large amount of energy to regulate the balance of fluid, electrolytes and acid-base homeostasis. Mitochondria provide indispensible energy to drive these functions. Diverse energy sources s...

    Authors: Yang Zhou and Junwei Yang

    Citation: ExRNA 2020 2:4

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  2. Potyviridae is the largest plant infecting family under the monophyletic group Riboviria, infects many of the food, fodder and ornamental crops. Due to the higher mutation and recombination rate, potyvirids are e...

    Authors: Ramamoorthy Sankaranarayanan, Sankara Naynar Palani, Abhishek Kumar, Punitha Selvakumar A. S. and Jebasingh Tennyson

    Citation: ExRNA 2020 2:5

    Content type: Research

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  3. Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser (Rubiaceae) is a widespread plant with medicine value and has been used for treating various diseases, such as coughs, fevers, anemia, blood disorders and stomach pains. It had...

    Authors: Jia-Jian He, Rui Ye, Ting Chen, Qian-Yun Xi, Jun-Yi Luo, Hao-Jie Zhang, Jia-Han Wu, Jia-Jie Sun and Yong-Liang Zhang

    Citation: ExRNA 2020 2:6

    Content type: Research

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  4. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as important oncogenes or tumor suppressors in each stage of cancer development. While previous studies focused on the individual miRNA and its specific target gene, the cooperative...

    Authors: Kegan Zhu, Hanying Ding, Ao Yu, Zhicong Liao, Zheng Fu, Yeting Hong, Xiaojun Wang, Chen-Yu Zhang and Xi Chen

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:29

    Content type: Research

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  5. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in eukaryotic gene regulation and diseases, rather than being merely transcriptional “noise”. Over the past decade, the study of lncRNAs has emerged as a burge...

    Authors: Minghui Liu and Jie Ren

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:27

    Content type: Review

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  6. MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs, playing an important role in regulating many biological pathways, such as innate immune response against various infections. Different studies confirm that many miRNAs act as imp...

    Authors: Ava Behrouzi, Marjan Alimohammadi, Amir Hossein Nafari, Mohammad Hadi Yousefi, Farhad Riazi Rad, Farzam Vaziri and Seyed Davar Siadat

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:40

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  7. Since the discovery of extracellular RNA (exRNA), it has been shown that exRNAs play a significant role as a transducer in intercellular communication and biomarkers in various diseases. Systemic lupus erythem...

    Authors: Shanshan Liu, Dandan Wang and Yuan Liu

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:33

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  8. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a number of small non-coding RNAs playing a regulatory part in gene expression. Many virus-encoded miRNAs have been found, which manifests that viruses as well apply the basic pattern of...

    Authors: Xihan Li and Xiaoping Zou

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:37

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  9. Houttuynia cordata Thunb (Family: Saururaceae) is well known as a traditional medicine plant and widely spread in China, Japan and India. It had been reported to have potential functions such as anti-bacterial, a...

    Authors: Jiajian He, Ting Chen, Qingyun Xi, Jiajie Sun, Junyi Luo, Meng Li, Haojie Zhang, Bin Zeng, Jiahan Wu and Yongliang Zhang

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:34

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  10. Ribonucleic acids (RNAs) mainly played auxiliary roles in regulations of genetic processes while recent explorations into small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria have broadened the scope of RNAs studies in t...

    Authors: Hongchang Fu, Rosalía Cardós Elena and Paola Handal Marquez

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:32

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  11. Intestinal diseases, which primarily include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC) and colitis associated cancer (CAC), are believed to develop as a result of heredity transmit, autoimmune ...

    Authors: Chen Wang and Jiangning Chen

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:23

    Content type: Review

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  12. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been recognized as novel molecular markers for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) diagnosis. However, the clinical impact of circulating miRNA has rarely been evaluated for the earl...

    Authors: Cheng Wang, Meng Ding, Yuan-Yuan Zhu, Jicheng Hu, Cuiping Zhang, Xiaolan Lu, Jingping Ge, Jun-Jun Wang and Chunni Zhang

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:25

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. microRNAs are small, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs that can suppress mRNA translation at the posttranscriptional level by binding to imperfect complementary sequences on mRNA targets and then cause their de...

    Authors: Liangsheng Lu, Yuan Liu, Yuyan Liu, Fan Zhang, Han Wang, Qipeng Zhang and Feng Pan

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:35

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  14. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding single strand RNAs. MiRNAs are encoded by endogenous genes with a length of about 22 nucleotides. MiRNAs play a vital role in the inhibition of post-transcriptional translatio...

    Authors: Jiali Deng and Feifan Guo

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:36

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  15. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of 18–25 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, usually inhibit the expression of their target genes. They are transcribed from endogenous genes and are processed for maturation by multip...

    Authors: Ting Wang, Fan Wu and Duonan Yu

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:16

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  16. Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are 18–24-nucleotide non-coding RNAs with post-transcriptional regulatory functions and have been documented as an essential cornerstone of the genetic system. Although the traditiona...

    Authors: Chihao Zhao, Xinlei Sun and Limin Li

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:38

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  17. Pancreatic cancer (PaC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies. The dismal survival rate of PaC patients is mainly due to the late diagnosis and their resistance to conventional chemotherapies. Emerging ev...

    Authors: Xiaohong Jiang, Dongxia Hou, Zhe Wei, Shasha Zheng, Yujing Zhang and Jing Li

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:17

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  18. MicroRNA isoforms are the variants of a canonical miRNA-sequence with alteration at the 3` or 5` termini due to addition, deletion and/or substitution of nucleotide. The present study aims at identifying the i...

    Authors: Jasdeep Kaur Dhanoa, Jasdeep Singh, Amarjit Singh, Jaspreet Singh Arora, R. S. Sethi and C. S. Mukhopadhyay

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:12

    Content type: Research

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  19. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single stranded non-coding RNAs that performed significant role in post-transcriptional regulation of target gene product. They are typically conserved among the organisms and also...

    Authors: Soumendu Ghosh, Manojit Bhattacharya, Avijit Kar, Basanta Kumar Das and Bidhan Chandra Patra

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:11

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  20. The discovery of extracellular non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), has dramatically altered our understanding of the role RNA plays in organisms. Importantly, thes...

    Authors: Geyu Zhou and Xi Chen

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:10

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  21. The discovery of extracellular RNA (exRNA) in blood and bodily fluids has expended our knowledge on RNA functions. ExRNAs may be transferred between cells and have functional significance in health and disease...

    Authors: Yang Zhou and Junwei Yang

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:5

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  22. IsomiRs, the sequence-variants of microRNA (miRNA), are characterized by variation at the 3′- and/or 5′-end(s) of canonical miRNA-sequence as a result of nucleotide addition or deletion or substitution. These ...

    Authors: Jasdeep Kaur Dhanoa, Ramneek Verma, R. S. Sethi, Jaspreet Singh Arora and C. S. Mukhopadhyay

    Citation: ExRNA 2019 1:3

    Content type: Review

    Published on: